The Arctic is a world in transition. Expectations are that sea ice will decline through the Northwest Passage, expanding the areas available for potential transit and triggering conversations surrounding development in marine-based industries such as cruise tourism, fishing, and bulk shipping. A number of questions still remain, though, before any major progression occurs, including the who, what, when, and where. A total of 78 stakeholders were identified, but the decision was made to combine sets of stakeholders into 27 stakeholder groups (SG) to simplify the analysis. They are operating at international, circumpolar, national, and local scales. The scope of the interests of each stakeholder have been categorized as (1) climate and environment); (2) economics; (3) security, safety and defense; (4) health and social; and/or (5) indigenous.
The diagram below,based on the D3.js library, shows the relationships between the stakeholders in the Arctic and their centers of interest when it comes to shipping. The stakeholders are bundled by their operational scales: international, international and national, international and local, national, national and local, local, and all scales. The last bundle gathers the interests: climate and environment, economy, safety, security and defence, health and social, and Inuit interests. Each node (SG or interest) acts as both source and target. either a stakeholder group or an interests (the source), it becomes highlighted in black. Depending on whether the selected source node is an interest or a SG, however the colour of the edge and the target(s) will be different. If the user passes their cursor over a SG, the adjoining line(s) and the target node(s) become highlighted in red if it is an interest or in purple if it is another SG. In contrast, if the user passes their cursor over an interest, the adjoining line(s) and the target node(s) will become highlighted in blue.
We also implemented description windows for each stakeholder group and interest. The descriptions are either taken directly from the official website of the stakeholder groups (e.g. those of federal departments and agencies), or they have been developed from the literature. The windows only appear when the user clicks on a particular node and will remain visible as long as the user the user holds down the button.
For our previous work we held meetings and interviews with 78 stakeholders, including Arctic shipping companies, the Canadian government, and the Inuit population. Based on our findings, we decided we should look at the data in a different way. Our goal was to enter into the details of the interactions, direct or indirect, between stakeholders. As most of our communications have been with shipping companies, we decided to start with studying the interactions between domestic shipping companies and other stakeholders, and the regulations influencing their operations.
Our decision to look into this was greatly influenced by the discussions that took place during the Canadian Marine Advisory Council in May 2015 in Iqaluit. It was brought to our attention that not a single tool provided the main stakeholders with a collective and integrated documentation of the other Arctic stakeholders they could and should interact with, and the legal documents that influence those interactions. Having already developed the stakeholders' wheel and the Arctic legal aspect treemap, these discussions consolidated us in our idea that an online user-friendly tool that offered a holistic view of the Arctic framework could be the solution; it could be a tool not only for researchers, but also for the companies themselves.
In June 2015, we met with the three major shipping companies in the eastern Canadian Arctic: FEDNAV, NEAS and Desgagnés. Before meeting with them, we already had an idea of the type of visualization we wanted to use in order to display their information: the bilevel partition in D3.js. They all praised the "out of the box" approach and agreed to participate. As such, we sent them a table with all the stakeholders they were susceptible to interact with
The bilevel partition looks like a donut and is interactive. Just as the treemap and the bundle, the data are displayed in a hierarchical way. Two arcs are shown at a time. If the first arc doesn't have a second level, the user cannot zoom in to the selected partition. If the two levels are visible, then the user can zoom in to the partition.
When the user clicks on a partition that can be zoomed in, it opens levels of information that were not displayed before. For example, if the "Government of Canada" partition is selected, it zooms in on the second arc (showing the partitions you already have on the global visualization) and displayed a new level of information: the branches of the federal departments the shipping companies interact with (e.g. CHS, CCG, Parks Canada) and the categories of legal texts (Acts, Acts and regulations, manuals).
As mentioned, every partition showing a second arc can be zoomed. The more the users click, the more they enter into the details. For example, clicking on “AWPPA” will display all the regulations pursuant to the Act.
The next steps are: a) to finish emplementing the pop-up windows describing the type of interactions existing between the domestic shipping companies and other stakeholders in the Canadian Arctic, b) doing the same study but with the cruise industry and comparing the results.
The version of the tool presented here is still a beta version so bugs may exist. For example the implementation of the tooltip is still ongoing.